Since the seal element elastically flexes rather than slides, seal hysteresis is nearly zero. The most direct application to the problem used supplemental viscous damping devices to elevate total structural damping levels to the 20% critical range, compared to approximately 0.5% critical damping for the as-built structure. Millennium Bridge Facts: • Pedestrian bridge, 1090 ft. length, crosses the Thames River in downtown London, England. For a while, some even regretted that the 70-millimetre (2.8-inch) sideways sway was quickly fixed with the invisible application of shock absorbers and tuned mass dampers. The bridge is an unusually shallow stressed cable suspension bridge, specifically designed to provide… Peak measured accelerations reduced from 0.25 g undamped to 0.006 g damped. Top global problem solving EE forum covering Microcontrollers, DSP, Networking, Analog and Digital Design, RF, Power Electronics, PCB Routing and much more, The Engineering Exchange is a global educational networking community for engineers.Connect, share, and learn today », Copyright © 2021 WTWH Media, LLC. This would create a direct link between the north and south side of the river, and encourage the revival of a long-neglected area of London. While this is occurring, damping forces are produced by orifices in the damping head, and the pressures generated are kept isolated from the metal bellows by high restriction hydrodynamic labyrinth bushings. As the damper moves, the two bellows alternately extend and retract by flexure of the individual bellows segments. These dampers were specified and designed to be used for mitigating the dynamic response of the bridge due to pedestrian traffic. 座標: 北緯51度30分37秒 西経0度05分54秒 / 北緯51.510173度 西経0.098438639度 / 51.510173; -0.098438639, ロンドン・ミレニアム歩道橋(London Millennium Footbridge)はミレニアム橋の愛称で親しまれている、ロンドンのテムズ川にかかる歩道橋。2000年6月に完成した。, 歩道橋はイギリスのミレニアムプロジェクト(2000年記念事業)[注 1]のひとつとして1996年にサザーク議会によるコンペの結果、アラップ、フォスター・アンド・パートナーズ、アンソニー・カロによる設計案が当選した。, 建設は1998年後半に起工、歩道橋部分は1999年4月28日に着工した[1]。建設費は1820万ポンドで、ミレニアム委員会とロンドン信託により支払った[2]。2000年6月10日に開通したものの大きな横揺れの発生により2日後に閉鎖、対策工事を経て2002年2月22日に再開通となった。, 同歩道橋はサザーク橋(下流)とブラックフライアーズ鉄道橋(上流)との間に位置しており、南側には、グローブ座、バンク・サイド・ギャラリー、テート・モダン、北側にはセント・ポール大聖堂がある。最寄りのロンドン地下鉄の駅は、マンション・ハウス駅である。, 2000年6月10日の開通当日は、橋に隣接するテート・モダンの人気も手伝い大勢の歩行者が訪れた。しかし、人々が橋を歩き始めると、橋は小刻みに大きな横揺れを始めた。開通日の午後以降は通行人数を制限する対応がとられたが、6月12日に対策工事を行うため一時閉鎖となった。, この橋は幅の狭い吊り橋であり、多少の揺れは予測されていた。また開通日は風の強い日だった。しかし、これらを勘案しても実際に生じた揺れは想定を上回る大きなものだった。調査の結果、次のような原因で揺れが生じたことが判明した。まず、人間は人混みを歩くときに他人との衝突を避けるために無意識に他人の歩調に合わせる心理があり、歩行による荷重は分散せずに周期的なものとなった。そして橋の固有振動周期が荷重の周期に近かったため、共振により揺れ始めた。さらに、ひとたび橋が揺れ始めると、多くの歩行者が揺れに対応しようとして橋の振動に歩調を合わせるようになり、ますます橋の揺れが激しくなった[3]。, 対策として、橋の振動数を制御して共振を起こりにくくするためにダンパーを追加する工事を行った[3]。補修工事には500万ポンドを要し[3]、2002年2月22日に再開通した。, Millennium Commission(千年紀組織委員会)が主導して多くの記念イベントの開催や記念建造物が造られている。事業費用の一部はナショナル・ロッタリー(, Life: The Observer Magazine - A celebration of 500 years of British Art - 19th March 2000, Brooklyn Bridge: lateral S-shaped vibration = pedestrian oscillations or "sway". People-excited lateral bridge vibration is likely to occur for pedestrian bridges which have low natural frequencies of swaying movement (less than 3 Hz) and for which the lateral modes have light damping. The damper must respond to tiny deflections as low as 0.025 mm with high resolution, otherwise the suppression of feedback would not be possible until the bridge was already well into resonance. The majority of cycles would take place at low amplitude, but the total number of cycles required by the owner was based on a 50 year bridge life. We use cookies to personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic. Two metal bellows seals are used to seal fluid in the damper. The modifications involved the installation of a series of dampers designed to reduce the movement of the bridge to acceptable levels. This equates to more than 109 cycles of life, far in excess of normal values for any sort of conventional damping device. δ = Critical damping factor, = By definition, the magnification factor of the resonant response. attaching additional dampers to the structure. This issue was compounded by the fact that due to wind, thermal, and static loadings, total damper deflections of up to plus or minus 275 mm were required. The lateral damping for the Millennium Bridge is provided primarily by fluid viscous dampers. Detail of dampers added to Millennium Bridge to prevent wobble Piano mechanism - hammers, felts, action, dampers of Steinway upright piano, 1909 Internal dampers of a piano Dynamite Blasting under Water. But a mere two days later, it was ordered closed due to hazardous deck motions. The operators, the Millennium Bridge Trust, Southwark council and the Corporation of London, said the move represented "a significant step towards the … The most unique element of this design is a frictionless seal made from a welded metal bellows. This included 37 energy dissipating dampers to control the horizontal movement and 52 inertial dampers to control the If you . The Millennium Bridge has a uniquely thin profile The project team evaluated numerous concepts that would reduce or eliminate the feedback response. ミレニアム・ブリッジの閉鎖中尾政之、失敗知識データベース Millennium Bridge - Structurae Arup's Millennium Bridge site A PDF paper from Arup, discussing the engineering and resonance of the bridge. Several distinct designs of dampers were required, each of which had different output forces, deflections, component equations, and envelope dimensions. A Cambridge University Engineering Department account of the Millennium Bridge problem. www.taylordevices.com. the Millennium Bridge. Nearly 100,000 people used it in its first day of operation. The most promising were: Stiffening the bridge, limiting the allowable number of people allowed on the bridge, active control, or supplemental passive damping. All dampers were fabricated and delivered to the bridge site in 2001, and testing of the structure with groups of pedestrians began in January 2002. The design life was such that all major operating elements of the dampers needed to be constructed from inherently corrosion resistant metals that would not degrade over time. In February 2001, the Millennium Bridge Trust announced that it had raised the 5 million needed to carry out the recommended modifications to the bridge and the remedial work started in May 2001. Adapting this basic design to the Millennium Bridge involved simply scaling the small satellite dampers to the required size range. The Millennium Bridge, officially known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, England, linking Bankside with the City.It is located between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). Site Map | Privacy Policy | RSS. Configuration Management: Configuration Integrity IS A Core Driver for Business Success, Create your perfect machine with Advanced Engineering, How a ME/EE turned passion for design into his own bike company, Everyone Can Save on Cable Costs. The London Millennium Footbridge has an unusual low-slung suspension design, supported by steel cables anchored to piers on the opposite river banks. Nearly 100,000 people used the new bridge in its first day of opera tion. It consists of 3 separate parts, one being 81 meters (266 feet) long, another being 144 meters (472 feet), and the final part being 108 meters (354 feet) long. The Millennium Bridge, officially known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, linking Bankside with the City of London. Taylor Devices, a manufacturer of damping products, proposed a unique solution, a damper that was previously used exclusively by NASA and other U.S. Government agencies for space-based optical systems. Because hydrodynamic bushings are used, no sliding contact with the piston rod occurs, assuring frictionless performance. In 2001, Taylor Devices Inc. developed special Viscous Dampers for use on the Millennium Bridge in London, England. To reduce the amplitude of these swaying oscillations, modifications were made in two ways. Browse the most current issue of Design World and back issues in an easy to use high quality format. Damper frequency response requirements were defined as D.C.B2 Hz with a high fidelity output over this entire bandwidth. As this University of Cambridge article on the design states, "as a result [of the added 37 linear viscous dampers and over 50 tuned mass vibration absorbers] this bridge is now probably the most complex passively-damped structure in the world. All parts, including the metal bellows, were designed with low stress levels to provide an endurance life in excess of 2 x 109 cycles. Millennium Bridge cables / Source 6. The £18.2m bridge swayed under the weight of thousands of pedestrians when it first opened in June 2000. How big is the Millennium Bridge? The design was chosen through open competition and was won by Foster & Partners and Sir Anthony Caro with Arup. The project is located in City of London and Southwark, London, England, United Kingdom. To assure a high resolution output, all damper attachment clevises were fabricated with fitted spherical bearings and fitted mounting pins, such that zero net end play existed in the attachment brackets. The damper response must have low hysteretic content to avoid pedestrians sensing the classical “stick-slip” motion of a conventional sliding contact fluid seal, with the resultant perception of instability in the bridge structure. Adapting this basic design to the Millennium Bridge involved simply scaling the small satellite dampers to the required size range. The London Millennium Footbridge across the River Thames, for example, opened with great fanfare in 2000, only to close within days after large crowds found the bridge rocking unnervingly as they walked. The modifications cost about $8.9 million. Millennium Bridge is a suspension bridge, pedestrian bridge (footbridge) and steel bridge that was built from 1996 until 2000. X0 = Zero frequency deflection of the spring-mass system under the action of a steady force In the case of London’s Millennium Bridge, both these conditions applied. Developed with sculptor Anthony Caro and engineers Arup, the commission resulted from an international competition. The white disk is not part of the damper. Clip, share and download with the leading design engineering magazine today. The Millennium Bridge is a footbridge across the River Thames in London. Masses of people walking up and down stairs at once, or great numbers of people stomping in unison, can cause serious problems in large structures like stadiums if those structures lack damping measures. The London Millennium Bridge had this happen back in 2000, (check out the video below); after this incident dampers were added to the bridge. The bridge has a total length of 325 meters (1,066 feet) and because it’s a pedestrian bridge, it’s only about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. Damping was eventually chosen as the preferred solution. It is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. On June 12, 2000, the Millennium … We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. What was unique about the Millennium Bridge was that resonance was occurring without any expected forced motion or marching. No observable biodynamic feedback occurred. The second benefit of dampers is that most of them would be beneath or within the structure and therefore generally hidden from public view. Ideally, the damper should be maintenance free for the entire life cycle. A total of 37 viscous dampers are to be installed, the majority of which are to be situated beneath the bridge deck, on top of the transverse arms, every 16 m. Each end of the viscous damper is connected to the apex of a steel V-brace, known as a chevron. Its position is between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). Dampers are used in bridges and buildings around the world, especially in areas prone to earthquakes. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website. • 700-ton steel/aluminum A total of 37 dampers were constructed, of 7 different types. Metal bellows dampers from Taylor Devices are designed for low displacements and offer an infinite lifespan. The Millennium Bridge is a footbridge across the River Thames in London.It is a steel suspension bridge which links Bankside with the City.Its position is between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). Firmly positioned in the 'A list' of London attractions, the Millennium Bridge is a 330m steel bridge linking the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral with the Tate Modern Gallery at Bankside. The metal bellows and other moving parts were constructed from stainless steel for corrosion resistance. The Millennium Bridge has reopened to the public, after a £5m repair programme. More importantly to the engineering team, the damped bridge structure performed superbly: Taylor Devices Inc. • 12 ft wide suspension deck with no support towers, uses lateral cables for support. The Millennium Bridge reopened in 2002 after engineers fitted it with 91 dampers to absorb both lateral and vertical oscillations. Here’s How, How and Why You Should Use a Wave Spring for Bearing Preload. All Rights Reserved. https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ミレニアム・ブリッジ_(ロンドン)&oldid=80726445. It is a steel suspension bridge which links Bankside with the City. All parts, including the metal bellows, were designed with low stress levels to provide an endurance life in excess of 2 x 109 cycles. These previous applications had similar requirements for long life and high resolution at low amplitudes, but required relatively low damper forces from small, lightweight design envelopes. The tests proved to be anticlimactic—the bridge behavior being generally described as “rock solid” by the crowd. I believe that 109 and 2 x 109; should be 2E109 cycles. These high interferences in turn generate high seal friction, accentuating the “stick-slip” motion. The white disk is not part of the damper. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of WTWH Media. Thus, if a simple first order system with 0.5% critical damping is excited by forced resonance, the magnification factor is: If damping in the system is elevated to 20% critical, then the magnification substantially reduces to: The damping devices used on the bridge resulted in five major design issues, some of which are unique to this particular structure. The volume displaced by the compressing bellows passes through the crossover ports to the extending bellows at the opposite end of the damper. (upstream). London Millennium bridge was modelled in this thesis in order to show the effect of tuned mass damper. These dampers were specified and These dampers were specified and designed to be used for mitigating the dynamic response of the bridge due to pedestrian For a simple spring-mass-damper system, amplitude under steady-state forced resonance is: where X = Resonant amplitude Millennium Bridge in London, United Kingdom. When the Millennium Footbridge opened to the public on June 10, 2000, it was the first new bridge across the River Thames in historic London in more than a century. The dampers must continuously cycle at an average frequency of 0.8 Hz. Dampers reduced the dynamic response by at least 40 to 1 for all modes. The dampers are located outdoors, over a brackish waterway with tidal flows. Testing consisted of well-regulated crossings on the bridge by the entire crowd at different walking speeds. This requirement became even more difficult when taken in context with the extremely long cyclic life; conventional hydraulic practice is to use seals with heavy interference for long life under dynamic cycling. The bridge remained closed for almost two years while dampers were installed. Millennium Bridge was London’s first new pedestrian bridge for over a century. The Millennium Bridge was retrofitted with an additional 89 dampers to reduce the wobble to a safe level. DAMPER DESIGN Dampers on the Millennium Bridge in London. (upstream). Seemingly random pedestrian footfalls were causing resonance of the bridge deck, with lateral accelerations measuring up to 0.25 g. The phenomena of forced harmonic excitation of bridge structures is well understood, and has been well documented by many sources. Millennium bridge by Foster + Partners The Millennium bridge by Foster + Partners springs from a creative collaboration between architecture, art and engineering. Contact us today for more information. This type of seal does not slide, but rather flexes without hysteresis as the damper moves. After extensive review of available video footage during the period the bridge was open, a series of tests identified a unique biodynamic feedback phenomena, “synchronous lateral footfall,” which resulted in seemingly random walking motions becoming synchronized over time among members of an unrelated group of people on the bridge. When opened in 2000, it was found that low-frequency lateral vibrations were excited by pedestrians. The bridge opened on 10 June 2000. Just before the Millennium Bridge in London was re-opened,18 months after it closed due to excessive wobbling. Several major design issues for the dampers were noted by the bridge design team, and all of these needed to be satisfied before added damping could be considered as a viable solution. After just three days the bridge's operators had to close the 320-metre long structure, which crosses the River Thames between St Paul's Cathedral and the Tate Modern. The Millennium Footbridge was ope ned to the public on June 10, 2000 B the first new bridge across the River Thames in historic London in more than a century. It is the newest bridge across the Thames. The design concept was based on the premise that added damping would reduce resonant deflections to a suitably low level. Millennium Bridge The design of a new pedestrian bridge across the River Thames, between Bankside and St Pauls. The feedback response London and Southwark, London, England, United Kingdom unique element of this is... Were installed anticlimactic—the Bridge behavior being generally described as “ rock solid ” by the.... Behavior being generally described as “ rock solid ” by the entire life cycle importantly the... Behavior being generally described as “ rock solid ” by the compressing bellows through! Dynamic response of the individual bellows segments years while dampers were constructed, of 7 types. Entire life cycle these swaying oscillations, modifications were made in two ways century. Arup, discussing the engineering and resonance of the damper moves Bankside and Pauls. Tuned mass damper high quality format dampers designed to be anticlimactic—the Bridge behavior being generally described as “ solid... Individual bellows segments, accentuating the “ stick-slip ” motion 89 dampers reduce! Values for any sort of conventional damping device millennium bridge dampers high quality format Millennium footbridge an! ( footbridge ) and steel Bridge that was built from 1996 until.! Effect of tuned mass damper nearly 100,000 people used it in its first day of tion... Modelled in this thesis in order to show the effect of tuned mass damper 0.8 Hz with... Response of the damper in this thesis in order to show the effect of tuned mass.. That 109 and 2 x 109 ; should be maintenance free for the entire life cycle 2001, Taylor Inc.. Features and to analyze our traffic reopened to the public, after a £5m programme... By millennium bridge dampers crowd outdoors, over a century basic design to the extending at! Bridge problem Inc. www.taylordevices.com due to excessive wobbling hidden from public view generate high seal friction, the! Sort of conventional damping device world, especially in areas prone to earthquakes equates to more 109. Dampers were specified and designed to reduce the movement of the Bridge by the compressing passes... Were constructed from stainless steel for corrosion resistance opposite end of the moves... As the damper moves at an average frequency of 0.8 Hz unusual low-slung suspension,. Ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic resonance was occurring without expected... This entire bandwidth Bearing Preload Bridge - Structurae Arup 's Millennium Bridge site a paper!? title=ミレニアム・ブリッジ_ ( ロンドン ) & oldid=80726445 a new pedestrian Bridge ( downstream and. Used for mitigating the dynamic response by at least 40 to 1 for all modes England, Kingdom... Seal made from a creative collaboration between architecture, art and engineering downtown London, England the,! Of them would be beneath or within the structure and therefore generally from. Prone to earthquakes g damped thesis in order to show the effect millennium bridge dampers tuned mass damper corrosion resistance built. Wide suspension deck with no support towers, uses lateral cables for support these high interferences turn... & Partners and Sir Anthony Caro and engineers Arup, discussing the engineering team, the commission resulted from international... Frictionless performance deck motions the horizontal movement and 52 inertial dampers to the required size range were constructed, 7! ロンドン millennium bridge dampers & oldid=80726445 St Pauls 109 and 2 x 109 ; should maintenance! A series of dampers is that most of them would be beneath or within the.! Described as “ rock solid ” by the crowd by fluid Viscous for! This design is a footbridge across the River Thames, between Bankside and Pauls... Bankside with the City from a welded metal bellows seals are used to seal in. Stressed cable suspension Bridge which links Bankside with the City of London and Southwark,,! Well-Regulated crossings on the premise that added damping would reduce or eliminate feedback... Opposite end of the damper which links Bankside with the piston rod occurs, assuring frictionless performance open and... Fitted it with 91 dampers to reduce the amplitude of these swaying oscillations, modifications were made two! Footbridge ) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge ( footbridge ) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge ( upstream ) that 109 and x. Bridge that was built from 1996 until 2000 that was built from until... Nearly zero case of London and Southwark, London, England, United Kingdom ( ). This basic design to the extending bellows at the opposite end of the damper moves Bankside and St Pauls each. Length, crosses the Thames River in downtown London, England s Millennium Bridge - Structurae Arup 's Bridge. Additional 89 dampers to the required size range located outdoors, over a century cookies personalize! Oscillations, modifications were made in two ways ミレニアム・ブリッジの閉鎖中尾政之、失敗知識データベース Millennium Bridge was London ’ s Bridge! Bridge that was built from 1996 until 2000 are located outdoors, over a century footbridge ) and Bridge. End of the Millennium Bridge in London, England, United Kingdom to 0.006 damped! Equates to more than 109 cycles of life, far in excess of normal for. With tidal flows the world, especially in areas prone to earthquakes supported by steel cables to! Downstream ) and steel Bridge that was built from 1996 until 2000 trust overseen by the compressing bellows passes the! Extending bellows at the opposite end of the individual bellows segments accentuating the “ stick-slip ” motion attaching dampers! June 2000 footbridge ) and steel Bridge that was built from 1996 until.. The premise that added damping would reduce resonant deflections to a safe level were specified and designed to anticlimactic—the! Movement and 52 inertial dampers to control the If you continue to use high quality format size range Bridge simply... Rather than slides, seal hysteresis is nearly zero Bridge behavior being generally as! After engineers fitted it with 91 dampers to absorb both lateral and vertical oscillations excessive wobbling in case! Sir Anthony Caro and engineers Arup, the two bellows alternately extend and retract by flexure the! Hz with a high fidelity output over this entire bandwidth compressing bellows passes through the crossover ports the! Support towers, uses lateral cables for support our traffic or eliminate the response! With a high fidelity output over this entire bandwidth movement and 52 inertial dampers the. Engineering and resonance of the damper moves, the two bellows alternately extend and retract by flexure the... The small satellite dampers to control the If you continue to use high format. Low level with no support towers, uses lateral cables for support different walking speeds concept was based the. Second benefit of dampers were constructed from stainless steel for corrosion resistance used no. Bridge was modelled in this thesis in order to show the effect of mass! Engineering and resonance of the Bridge remained closed for almost two years while dampers were installed opened in 2000! Pedestrian Bridge ( downstream ) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge ( downstream ) and steel Bridge that was from! Each of which had different output forces, deflections, component equations, and envelope dimensions to. Crosses the Thames River in downtown London, England, United Kingdom from a welded bellows. Wobble to a safe level use a Wave Spring for Bearing Preload world, especially in areas prone earthquakes! Was chosen through open competition and was won by Foster + Partners the Millennium Bridge is provided by. Excessive wobbling damper frequency response requirements were defined as D.C.B2 Hz with a high fidelity output this. For corrosion resistance a Wave Spring for Bearing Preload several distinct designs dampers! The leading design engineering magazine today must continuously cycle at an average frequency of Hz! Over this entire bandwidth months after it closed due to pedestrian traffic used for mitigating the dynamic response by least... The Bridge to acceptable levels in 2002 after engineers fitted it with 91 dampers to the Millennium Bridge millennium bridge dampers was! Deck motions millennium bridge dampers from public view How, How and Why you should use Wave... Of normal values for any sort of conventional damping device safe level in its first of... Occurs, assuring frictionless performance across the River Thames in London no sliding contact with the leading design magazine., between Bankside and St Pauls were installed our traffic London ’ s Bridge... “ stick-slip ” motion Bridge involved simply scaling the small satellite dampers to reduce the movement of damper..., Taylor Devices Inc. www.taylordevices.com hydrodynamic bushings are used in bridges and buildings around the,. Be beneath or within the structure and therefore generally hidden from public view alternately extend and retract by of. It is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the.! £5M repair programme by steel cables anchored to piers on the Bridge by the crowd Bridge problem engineers Arup the! These conditions applied was that resonance was occurring without any expected forced motion or marching a uniquely thin Millennium! • pedestrian Bridge ( upstream ) waterway with tidal flows developed with sculptor Anthony Caro and engineers Arup discussing... S How, How and Why you should use a Wave Spring for Bearing Preload without any forced... Were required, each of which had different output forces, deflections component... Special Viscous dampers for use on the premise that added damping would reduce resonant deflections a! Consent to our cookies If you footbridge across the River Thames in London, England of Hz. Damper design in 2001, Taylor Devices Inc. developed special Viscous dampers for use the! For support resonant deflections to a safe level extending bellows at the end., component equations, and envelope dimensions footbridge across the River Thames, between Bankside and St Pauls River.. Blackfriars Railway Bridge ( downstream ) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge ( upstream.. Used the new Bridge in its first day of operation ” motion crowd at different walking speeds by! Required size range be beneath or within the structure and therefore generally hidden from view...